Research & Resources
- Human Milk Banking Association of North America - (HMBANA)
- World Health Organization - (WHO)
- Canadian Paediatric Society - (CPS)
- American Academy of Pediatrics
Evidence for Breastmilk feeding:
- Draft - Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants – Health Canada
- American Academy of Pediatrics: Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk
- US Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding
- Canadian Pediatric Society: The Baby Friendly Initiative: Protecting, Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding
- Breastfeeding Committee of Canada
Benefits of breastmilk for the preterm baby
Vohr BR, Poindexter BB, Dusick AM, et al; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development National Research Network Persistent beneficial effects of breastmilk ingested in the neonatal intensive care unit on outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants at 30 months of age. Pediatrics. 2007;120(4).
Lucas A, Morley R, Cole TJ. Randomised trial of early diet in preterm babies and later intelligence quotient. BMJ. 1998;317 (7171):1481–1487
Isaacs EB, Fischl BR, Quinn BT, Chong WK, Gadian DG, Lucas A. Impact of breastmilk on intelligence quotient, brain size, and white matter development. Pediatr Res. 2010;67(4):357–362
Reduction in NEC:
Meinzen-Derr J, Poindexter B, Wrage L, Morrow AL, Stoll B, Donovan EF. Role of human milk in extremely low birth weight infants’ risk of necrotizing enterocolitis or death. J Perinatol. 2009;29(1):57–62
Improved feeding tolerance:
Decreased retinopathy of prematurity:
Okamoto T, Shirai M, Kokubo M, et al. Human milk reduces the risk of retinal detachment in extremely low-birthweight infants. Pediatr Int. 2007;49(6):894–897
Decreased metabolic syndrome:
Singhal A, Cole TJ, Lucas A. Early nutrition in preterm infants and later blood pressure: two cohorts after randomised trials. Lancet. 2001;357(9254):413–419
el-Mohandes AE, Picard MB, Simmens SJ, Keiser JF. Use of human milk in the intensive care nursery decreases the incidence of nosocomial sepsis. J Perinatol 1997;17:130-4.
Narayanan I, Prakash K, Bala S, Verma RK, Gujral VV. Partial supplementation with expressed breast-milk for prevention of infection in low-birth-weight infants. Lancet 1980;2:561-3.
Donor milk use:
Quigley MA, Henderson G, Anthony MY, McGuire W. Formula milk versus donor breastmilk for feeding preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(4):CD002971
Wight NE. Donor human milk for preterm infants. J Perinatol 2001;21:249-54.
Tully DB, Jones F, Tully MR. Donor milk: What’s in it and what’s not. J Hum Lact 2001;17:152-5.
Sullivan S, Schanler RJ, Kim JH, et al. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products. J Pediatr. 2010;156(4):562–567, e1
Ewaschuk J, Unger S, Harvey S, O’Connor D, Field C. Effect of pasteurization on immune components of milk: implications for feeding preterm infants. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2011;36:175-82.
Schanler RJ, Lau C, Hurst NM, Smith EO. Randomized trial of donor human milk versus preterm formula as substitutes for mothers' own milk in the feeding of extremely premature infants. Pediatrics. 2005 Aug;116(2):400-6